• 08日本茶道,韓國茶禮 08日本茶道,韓國茶禮

    日本茶道
    Japanese Tea Ceremony

    南宋末期(公元1259年),24歲的日本南浦紹明禪師入宋求法,在徑山寺學習了茶宴儀式。學成歸國后,將徑山寺的茶宴儀式帶回日本,加上日本民族的禮儀規范而逐漸發展成盛行至今的具有“和、靜、清、寂”精神的日本茶道。
    茶道在日本很普遍,但在一般家庭里是沒有茶室的。茶道主要作為一種禮儀,只在接待貴賓或在愛好茶道的人們聚會的特殊場合進行。
    At the end of the South Song Dynasty (1259 AD), the 24-year-old Japanese Zen Master Nanpo Shōmyō came to China and learned the tea ceremony at the Jingshan Mountain Temple. He then brought back what he had learned to Japan, which was combined with the Japanese etiquette and gradually developed into a Japanese tea ceremony with the spirit of "harmony", "respect", "purity", and "tranquility" that has prevailed until now.
    Tea ceremony is very popular in Japan, but there is no tea room in average families. The tea ceremony is only for the reception of distinguished guests, or for special occasions where people who like tea ceremony meet as a kind of etiquette.

    茶道待客之禮儀與飲法程序:
    (1)賓客進入“茶室”之后,依序面對主人就座,賓主對拜稱“見過禮”,主人致謝成“懇敬詞”。
    (2)室內莊重肅穆,賓主正襟危坐,靜看茶娘進退起跪調理茶具,并用小玉杵將碗里茶餅研碎。
    (3)茶聲沸響,主人則須恭接茶壺,將沸水注入碗中,使茶末散開,浮起乳白色沫花,香氣溢出。
    (4)將第一碗茶用文漆茶案托著,慢慢走向第一位賓客,跪在面前,以齊眉架勢呈獻。
    (5)賓客叩頭謝茶、接茶,主人亦須叩頭答謝、回禮。
    (6)如上一碗一碗注,一碗一碗獻;待主人最后自注一碗,始得各捧起茶碗,輕嗅、淺啜、閑談。
    The etiquette and procedure of Japanese tea ceremony:
    (1) After entering the "tea room", the guests take their seats in order facing the host. The guests and the host bow silently as the "meeting etiquette” and the host expresses thanks to the guests with “words showing respect.
    (2) In the solemn interior of the tea room, the guests and the host sit upright, watching the tea girl go back and forth to prepare the tea set, and use the small jade stick to grind the tea cake in the bowl.
    (3) When the water is boiling, the host takes over the teapot with respect and pours the boiling water into the bowl, with the tea spreading, the milky white foams floating and the fragrance coming into the air.
    (4) Hold the first bowl of tea with the lacquer tea case, slowly move toward the first guest, kneel in front of the guest and present him with the tea bowl up in front of one’s brows.
    (5) The guest kowtows to thank for the tea and takes the tea. The host then kowtows back too.
    (6) The tea then is presented one bowl after another to all guests in the way in step 5 and the last bowl is for the host. Then all guests and host hold their own tea bowl, sniff slightly, drink slowly and chat casually.

    韓國茶禮
    Korean tea ceremony

    韓國茶禮始于高麗王朝時期,并普及于王室、官員、僧道、百姓中。
    The Korean tea ceremony began in the Korai Dynasty and was popular among the royal family, officials, martyrdom and common people.

    韓國茶禮種類繁多、各具特色。如按名茶類型區分,有“抹茶法”、“餅茶法”、“錢茶法”、“葉茶法”4種。下面介紹韓國茶禮的葉茶法:
    (1)迎賓:賓客光臨,主人必先至大門口恭迎,并以“歡迎光臨”“請進”等語句迎賓引路。而賓客必以年齡高低順序隨行。進茶室后,主人必立于東南向,向來賓再次表示歡迎后,坐東面西,而客人則坐西面東。
    (2)溫茶具:沏茶前,先收拾、折疊茶巾,將茶巾置茶具左邊,然后將燒水壺中的開水倒進茶壺,溫壺預熱,再將茶壺中的水分別平均注入茶杯,溫杯后即棄于茶水桶中。
    (3)沏茶:主人打開壺蓋,右手持茶匙,左手持茶罐,用茶匙舀出茶葉置壺中。根據不同季節,采用不同的投茶法,一般春秋季用中投法,夏季用上投法,冬季則用下投法。待泡好后,將茶壺中沖泡好的茶湯,按自右至左的順序,分三次緩緩注入杯中,茶湯量以斟至杯中七分滿為宜。
    (4)品茗:茶沏好后,主人以右手舉杯托,左手把住手袖,恭敬地將茶捧至來賓面前的茶桌上,再回到自己的茶桌前捧起自己的茶杯,對賓客行“注目禮”,口中說“請喝茶”,而來賓則回答“謝謝”后,賓主即可一起舉杯品飲。在品茗的同時,可品嘗各式糕餅、水果等清淡茶食用以佐茶。
    South Korea's tea ceremony has a wide variety with unique characteristics. According to the types of tea, there are four kinds: “Tea Powder Method”, “Cake Tea Method”, “Qian Tea Method” and “Leaf Tea Method”. Here is the leaf tea method of Korean tea ceremony:
    (1) Greetings: When guests come, the host will first come to the gate to welcome them with the words "Welcome" and "Please come in" and lead the way. Guests then come in one by one according to age priority. After entering the tea room, the host will stand in the southeast, greet the guests once again, and sit in the east facing west. The guests sit in the west facing east.
    (2) Warming tea set: Before making tea, first pack and fold the tea towel and put it on the left side of the tea set. Then pour the boiling water in the kettle into the teapot to warm it, and then pour the water in the teapot into the tea cups on average to warm the cups. The water is discarded in the tea bucket finally.
    (3) Making tea: The host opens the lid of the teapot, holding the teaspoon in the right hand, and the tea caddy in the left hand. Take out some tea with the teaspoon and put it in the teapot. According to different seasons, the orders of pouring tea and water are different. Generally speaking, in spring and autumn, the tea will be put into the teapot after pouring the first half water, and then the left half water be poured in. In summer, the tea will be put into the teapot after all water poured into the teapot. In winter, the tea will be put into the teapot before pouring water in. When the tea is ready, pour the tea into the cups to high-medium amount from the right to the left in 3 times.
    (4) Tasting tea: When the tea is ready in the cups, the host puts the tea to the tea tables in front of the guests with respect, holding the cup saucer with the right hand and holds the right sleeve with the left hand. Then the host goes back to his own seat and pick up his own teacup, making eye contact with the guests and saying “Please enjoy the tea.” The guests reply with thanks. After that, the host and the guests taste the tea together. They may eat some refreshments like cakes and fruits while tasting tea.

    08日本茶道,韓國茶禮 08日本茶道,韓國茶禮
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